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July 15, 2022
  • An important part of the activities of humankind since the beginning of recorded history Italy has a vital role in the lives of human beings.
  • It is found everywhere in our world.
  • One more stimulus in the vast ocean of stimuli gathered by our senses daily.

                       Humans use music for many purposes:

  • Personal entertainment
  • Contemplative activities.
  • Relaxation.
  • Stimulation.
  • Music has the power to influence psychological aspects of behavior both consciously and unconsciously

 - Transmission and Reception of Sound

  • A receiver to hear or record sound vibrations.
  • Three requirements for sound to "occur" in an environment:
  • A vibrating source to initiate sound
  • A medium to transmit sound vibrations throughout the environment - such as air or water.


Many varieties of vibrating sources in the World:

  • Vocal cords
  • A membrane of animal hide or synthetic material
  • A stretched string that is plucked or bowed
  • Objects such as wo, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, o d, stone, clay, metal, and glass that are struck
  • The rattling of beads in a small enclosure,
  • Clapping of hands, s,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, singing of birds, grunts, and groans of animals
  • Buzzing of lips in a small resonating tube
  • Splitting of an air stream
  • Small pieces of reed attached to a tube and set in motion by the action of human breath
  • Many, many other natural vibrating sources.
  • The sound may also be produced artificially by electronic synthesis


Music Elements

  • Notation
  • Melody
  • Rhythm
  • Harmony
  • Texture
  • Form
  • Dynamics
  • Timbre


  • Written on paper, so that the music may be performed again and again.

 Music notation system

  • Enjoyment and understanding of most music are not dependent upon the ability to read and interpret written music notation.


  • A succession of single tones or pitches that are perceived to be unified.

Characteristics of Melody:

  • Pitch -The highness or lowness of a tone, depending on the frequency.
  • Interval -The distance and relationship between two pitches.
  • Range -The distance between the lowest and highest tones of a melody, an instrument, or a voice
  • Shape -The direction a melody takes as it turns upward or downward, or remains static.
  • Phrase -As in language, a unit of meaning within a larger structure; thus, a melody may be divided into component phrases.
  • Cadence -A resting place in musical phrase-musical punctuation.
  • Countermelody -An accompanying melody playing against the principal melody.

                      Rhythm—The element of time in music.

Characteristics of Rhythm:

  • Beat -Regular pulsation; a basic unit of length in musical time.
  • Accent -Emphasis on a note, so that it is louder or longer than another.
  • Tempo -The rate of speed or pace of the musical pulse.
  • Measure -A rhythmic group or unit that contains a fixed number of beats, divided on the musical staff by bar lines.
  • Meter -The grouping of beats into larger, regular patterns, notated as measures.
  • Upbeat -The last beat of a measure, a weak beat, which anticipates the downbeat, the first beat of the next measure.
  • Downbeat -The first beat of a measure, the strongest in any meter.
  • Syncopation -Deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse through a temporary shifting of the accent to a weak beat, or an offbeat.
  • Polyrhythmic - The simultaneous use of several rhythmic patterns or meters.
  • Nonmetric -Music lacking a strong sense of beat or meter.


        Harmony —The simultaneous combination of notes and

              the ensuing relationships of intervals and chords.


Characteristics of Harmony:

  • Chord  - Simultaneous combination of tones (typically three or more) that constitute a single block of harmony.
  • Scale  -  A series of tones or pitches in ascending or descending order.
  • Tonality  -  The principle of organizing work around a central tonic, or home pitch, based on a major or minor scale.
  • Tonic
  • Diatonic
  • Chromatic
  • Consonance
  • Dissonance
  • Drone


          Texture—The interweaving of melodic (horizontal) and

                      harmonic elements in the musical fabric.

Generally described as:

  • Monophonic one voice/part presents a single melody.
  • Heterophonic: Two or more voices/parts elaborate on the same melody simultaneously.
  • Homophonic: principle melody and accompanying harmony.
  • Polyphonic: two or more melodies combine into a multi-voiced texture.

Form: The structure or shape of a musical work, based on repetition, contrast, and variation; the organizing principle of music.

Characteristics of Form:

  • Repetition: Within a form, repetition fixes the material in our mind and satisfies our need for the familiar; it provides unity to a form.
  • Contrast: Within a form, contrast sustains our interest and feeds our love of change.
  • Variation: A principle in which some aspects of the music are altered but still recognizable.

Repetition, variation, and contrast are the foundational procedures on which music composition rests.

Theme—A melodic idea used as a basic building block in the construction of a composition.  There are a variety of ways to create thematic development.

Motive: A small, thematic fragment that constitutes a melodic-rhythmic unit.

Sequence: A restatement of an idea at a higher or lower pitch level.

Ostinato: A short musical pattern – melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic- that is repeated persistently throughout a work or major section of a composition.



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